Gutter – hvem bry seg om dem…

 

Sentio Research gjennomførte en undersøkelse i april 2017 for Norsk Studentorganisasjon og Universitas. Undersøkelsen dekket flere områder og uønsket seksuell oppmerksomhet var ett av dem. Flere artikler på Universitas refererer denne delen av undersøkelsen og de oppgir at 12% av studentene sier at de har opplevd uønsket seksuell oppmerksomhet. Alle artiklene jeg har sett i Universitas refererer kun til kvinnelige studenter utsatt for dette og kun til menn som utøvere av denne uønskede oppmerksomheten. Men så kom jeg over denne artikkelen på Khrono hvor de skriver at undersøkelsen fra Sentio Research fant at det er størst andel mannlige studenter som opplever uønsket seksuell oppmerksomhet fra medstudenter eller ansatte ved lærestedet:

14 prosent av mannlige studenter at de har opplevd uønsket seksuell oppmerksomhet fra medstudenter eller tilsatte, mot 11 prosent av kvinnene.

Dette aspektet var tydeligvis ikke interessant for Universitas.

Denne undersøkelsen dukker også opp i Stortinget i Representantsforslag 75 S (2017-2018) hvor totaltallet 12% blir nevnt.  Her blir også en undersøkelse utført av NTNU ved skoler i Sør-Trøndelag referert. Følgende funn fra den undersøkelsen blir fremhevet i representatsforslaget:

63 pst. av jentene og 62 pst. av guttene rapporterte om minst én form for seksuell trakassering det siste året. Minst én form for seksuell tvang ble rapportert av 35 pst. av jentene og 25 pst. av guttene.

Det blir ikke nevnt i representantforslaget av 40% av guttene rapporterte seksuell trakassering fra jevnaldrende jente og heller ikke at 15% av guttene rapporterte seksuell tvang fra jevnaldrende jente. Det blir heller ikke nevnt hvilken andel av de utsatte jentene som rapporterte at en jevnaldrende jente var utøver (43% og 5%).

Forslagsstillerne  har endel gode forslag som bedre kartlegging av seksuell trakassering som også omfatter skoleelever, program for forebygging av seksuell trakassering i skolen, tidlig og alderstilpasset opplæring om kjønn, kropp, seksualitet og grensesetting, at arbeidet mot seksuell trakassering forankres i opplæringsjobben og at man gjennom forskrift ansvarliggjør rektor i saker om seksuell trakassering på lik linje med saker om mobbing.

Men det er når forslagene blir konkrete at forslagsstillerne feiler. Etter at de har referert tallene for både gutter og jenter fra undersøkelsen utført av NTNU så fremhever de følgende:

Tiltak som gir jenter verktøyene for å sette egne grenser, er derfor nødvendig.

Dette blir formulert slik i ett konkret forslag (pkt. 6):

Stortinget ber regjeringen innføre selvforsvarskurs for jenter på ungdomsskolen eller videregående skole med fokus på grensesetting. En modell for dette, inkludert opplæring av instruktører og et parallelt opplegg for gutter om respekt for grenser, må utvikles i samarbeid med relevante fagmiljøer.

De 62% og 25% av guttene som hadde opplevd seksuell trakassering og seksuelle overgrep er tydeligvis allerede glemt, feiet under teppet, ikke ansett som relevante. De trenger tydeligvis ingen konkrete rettede tiltak. Hadde forslagsstillerne bare referert til undersøkelser som kun undersøker omfang blant jenter så kunne man ha skyldt utelatelsen på uvitenhet om omfanget blant gutter. Men forslagsstillerne kan ikke skjule seg bak sin uvitenhet her.

Det gjør meg forbannet.

I et intervju med Aftenposten i 2013 sa daværende stortingsrepresentat André Oktay Dahl følgende:

Det er svært få av de 169 stortingsrepresentantene som husker at menn også utsettes for overgrep og vold.

 

Etter tolv år på Stortinget må jeg fortsatt dra politikere etter håret for å få dem til å si «kvinner og menn» når de snakker om seksuelle overgrep.

Politikerne har tydeligvis ikke lært siden dengang og André Oktay Dahl har trukket seg fra rikspolitikken.

Finnes det i dag noen på Stortingen som kan påse at utsatte gutter og menn blir inkludert?

 

 

 

Tillegg: Jeg ser at Reform har fremført noe av den samme kritikken jeg kommer med i høringsinnspill: https://reform.no/gode-anslag-forslag-seksuell-trakassering/

 

 

 

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CDC: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance

Apart from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Surveys (NISVS) CDC also performs at regular intervals a survey among high school students called “Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance” and has done so since the 1990s.

 

In 2001 they added the question

Have you ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to?

to the survey.

 

Below is a chart showing the results of that questions since 2001 and up to the latest available data which is from 2015:

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First Glimpse of NISVS 2012 Results

I have written quite a few posts about the NISVS 2010 and NISVS 2011 reports which found staggering number for male victimization of sexual violence – in particular in the “made to penetrate” category which for inexplicable reasons CDC buried by not categorizing it as rape.

 

CDC have recently published a fact sheet about sexual victimization among boys and girls under 18. The data is stated that is from the NISVS 2012 and are the first indication I’ve seen that the CDC continued with the NISVS after the one surveyed in 2011 (results were published in 2014).

 

The Fact Sheet is titled “Sexual Violence in Youth – Findings from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey“.

 

The Fact Sheet listed a table containing key findings from the NISVS 2012:

NISVS 2012 Key Findings

 

Sex Exchange More Common Among Boys

An earlier post of mine titled “And Boys Too…” looked at the prevalence of teen prostitution among boys in different countries. I noted that to some extent there are more teen aged male prostitutes than teen aged female prostitutes based on a handful of studies.

Here is another US study using a nationally representative sample of adolescents and young adults which found that more males reported exchanging sex than females.

Ulloa, E.; Salazar, M.; & Monjaras, L. (2016). Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 25(5), 524-537.

It used data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

 

 

CDC Uniform Definitions Of Sexual Violence And Male Victims

I have written about the discrepancy between the categories and definitions used by the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) and the uniform definitions the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) had published at that time (UD2009) which was a minor revision of the uniform definitions published in 2002 (UD2002).

I recently became aware that last December the CDC have published a new version of the document, “Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements” (UD2014), on their website. A panel of 11 experts which received comments from seven leaders in the field wrote this document. The panel started its work in October 2010 with this stated agenda:

The key issues discussed and considered by the in-person expert panel that were directly relevant to the SV definitions document were the following: 1) how and if to include unwanted non-physically pressured sex, 2) how and if to include sexual harassment, 3) whether or not to expand the meaning of “completed sex act” to identify who penetrates whom, and 4) how and if to update the Recommended Data Elements.

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Pilot White House Mandated Campus Climate Survey Did End Up Ignoring Male Victims

Almost a year ago I wrote a post about the correspondence I had with the pilot survey project which the White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault tasked Rutgers University to do. I expressed my concern with the methodology suggested by the White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault in their recommendations published in April 2014.

My impression from the email exchange I had with the project team leader at Rutgers University were that they took my concerns about male victims not being measured by some of the recommended methodologies seriously and they assured me that they would be using gender neutral questions.They also said they would include my concerns in the pilot project’s feedback to the White House and the Office on Violence against Women.

The 2nd of September Rutgers University published a report with the findings from their Campus Climate survey. Which is an opportunity for me to examine to what extent my concerns were considered.

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Crime Survey of England and Wales – Made To Penetrate Questions Confirmed

This is just a quick update and some comment on the changes to the CSEW questionnaire the Office of National Statistics earlier have promised to make. Daran brought to my attention that ONS had released their latest questionnaire earlier this year and that it indeed included “made to penetrate” questions.

I’ve spent some time reading the new questionnaire and although I am pleased that they did include questions about being made to penetrate I have to wonder why they treated it so differently than the other questions for severe sexual violence. The differences are (as Daran pointed out in his comment):

Made to penetrate questions do not ask about attempts. The Sexual Offences Act Section 4 covering made to penetrate does not include attempts, but neither does Section 1 about rape. This is disappointing.

Made to penetrate questions do not ask about who the perpetrator is. The other severe sexual violence questions differentiate between perpetrators who are partners/ex-partners, family members and anyone.

Given that it doesn’t include attempts and considering findings like the ones from the STIRitUP project I wrote about in another blogpost1 I suspect that we won’t see such a startling number for male victimization as we did in the NISVS reports where just as many men reported having been made to penetrate in the last 12 months as women reported having been raped in the last 12 months (both including attempts).

1. STIRitUP found that UK had the highest rate of sexual violence against teenaged girls from their partner and the lowest rate of sexual violence against teenaged boys from their partners compared to four other european countries.